It was founded in 1947 as a representative theater of the new Yugoslavia. The basis of the repertoire orientation of the JDP, as a high-level literary theater, was laid by his first artistic director - Bojan Stupica. The orientation of the JDP to this day has not changed. The Yugoslav Drama Theater was created at the place of a riding school, when the stables were transformed and adapted into a scene.
The immense significance and contribution to the Serbian culture that the theater provides is extended by the opening of the Ars Dramatic Library in 1978, and after the renovation of the theater building, the publishing house Ars Dramatica Nova was created. Leading editions are drama pieces set in the theater as well as theatrological works. The JDP Foundation was established in 2012 with the aim of deepening cooperation with partners and sponsors, in the service of better development of the theater and launching additional cultural activities for the community as a whole, as well as for connecting with other theaters and institutions of culture from the country and the world.